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The Stadel is one of three caves in the area that are of important paleontological and archaeological significance.
The other two are die kleine Scheuer the small barn and the Bärenhöhle Bears' Cave. In the site became part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site "Caves and Ice Age Art in the Swabian Jura".
The first excavations at Hohlenstein were made in by Oskar Fraas , geologist and paleontologist, who was searching for Cave bear bones at the Bärenhöhle and the Stadel.
He returned in , realizing the archeological importance of the site. In , archaeologists returned to excavate the cave.
An initial trial dig under Robert Wetzel was followed by further work in Between and further excavations were conducted directed by Wetzel and Otto Völzing , a geologist.
On the last day of digging, on 25 August , Völzing found a large number of broken pieces of ivory. They were little noted and went into storage at the Museum Ulm.
It was not until that Joachim Hahn came across the more than pieces and assembled them into a cm-tall figurine of a humanoid with a lion's head.
This is now known as the Löwenmensch. At 35, to 40, years old, it qualifies as one of the oldest pieces of figurative art ever discovered.
Further excavations followed in and , and between and The stratigraphy includes layers from the Neolithic , Mesolithic , Upper Paleolithic , notably the Magdalenian and the Aurignacian periods and finally the Middle Paleolithic.
More work followed in and , when a dig led by Nicholas Conard , Michael Bolus and Andrew Kandel was conducted in the valley in front of the caves.
Interior excavation was resumed in to by the Landesamt für Denkmalpflege Baden-Württemberg state office for monument protection.
This work, led by Thomas Beutelspacher and C. Kind managed to locate the exact spot in which the Lion-man had been discovered and to find numerous additional ivory splinters that were found to fit onto the figurine.
Dating of bones found immediately next to them yielded an age of 35, to 41, years. The femur came from a layer associated with Middle Paleolithic Mousterian artefacts.
This femur represents the only archaic hominin fossil found in a Mousterian context within the entire Swabian Jura region. Attempts to radiocarbon date the femur have yielded inconsistent results; however, molecular dating suggests that the femur is roughly , years old.
In , researchers successfully sequenced the full mtDNA genome from the femur. The results confirmed that the femur belonged to a Neanderthal.
The mtDNA from the Hohlenstein-Stadel sample is highly divergent from those of other available Neanderthal samples. The addition of this mtDNA sample itself results in a near doubling of the genetic diversity of available Neanderthal mtDNA using Watterson's estimator theta ; this suggests that Neanderthal mtDNA diversity was higher than previously presumed.
Researchers estimate that the Hohlenstein-Stadel mtDNA diverged from other Neanderthal lineages around , years ago.
In January , the federal government of Germany applied for the status of World Heritage Site for two valleys with six caves named Höhlen der ältesten Eiszeitkunst "caves with the oldest Ice Age art".
The site would encompass areas in the Lonetal valley of the Lone and the Achtal valley of the Ach , both in the southern Swabian Jura.
The former includes the caves Hohlenstein-Stadel , Vogelherd and Bocksteinhöhle , the latter Geissenklösterle , Hohle Fels and Sirgenstein Cave.
In the argument why these sites deserve recognition as a part of the universal human heritage, the area is described as the source of the currently oldest non-stationary works of human art in the form of carved animal and humanoid figurines as well as the oldest musical instruments.
Their creators lived, were inspired, and worked in and around these caves. All the physics! Development Stage. Published On.
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PLEASE make a full game out of this i woulde be willing to pay for this. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Muhlenstein. This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in German.
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